Провинция Хунань

References

  1. List of administrative divisions of Greater China by Human Development Index
  2. Harold Wiens. Han Expansion in South China. (Shoe String Press, 1967).
  3. Brian Lander. State Management of River Dikes in Early China: New Sources on the Environmental History of the Central Yangzi Region . T’oung Pao 100.4-5 (2014): 325–362
  4. Census Office of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China; Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People’s Republic of China (2012). 中国2010人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料 (1 ed.). Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.
  5. Ministry of Civil Affairs (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》 (in Chinese). China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.
  6. ^ 国务院人口普查办公室、国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 (2012). 中国2010年人口普查分县资料. Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-6659-6.
  7. ^
  8. according to Hunan Provincial Bureau of Statistics

Административное деление

Этнический состав населения округов провинции Хунань

Провинция делится на 13 городских округов и 1 автономный округ.

КартаРусское названиеКитайское названиеСтатус
1长沙市Chángshā ShìГородской округ
2常德市Chángdé ShìГородской округ
3郴州市Chénzhōu ShìГородской округ
4衡阳市Héngyáng ShìГородской округ
5怀化市Huáihuà ShìГородской округ
6娄底市Lóudǐ ShìГородской округ
7邵阳市Shàoyáng ShìГородской округ
8湘潭市Xiāngtán ShìГородской округ
9益阳市Yìyáng ShìГородской округ
10永州市Yǒngzhōu ShìГородской округ
11岳阳市Yuèyáng ShìГородской округ
12张家界市Zhāngjiājiè ShìГородской округ
13株洲市Zhūzhōu ShìГородской округ
14湘西土家族苗族自治州Xiāngxī Tǔjiāzú Miáozú ZìzhìzhōuАвтономный округ

Geography

Hunan is located on the south bank of the Yangtze River, about half way along its length, situated between 108° 47’–114° 16′ east longitude and 24° 37’–30° 08′ north latitude. Hunan covers an area of 211,800 square kilometres (81,800 square miles), making it the 10th largest provincial-level division. The east, south and west sides of the province are surrounded by mountains and hills, such as the Wuling Mountains to the northwest, the Xuefeng Mountains to the west, the Nanling Mountains to the south, and the Luoxiao Mountains to the east. Mountains and hills occupy more than 80% of the province, and plains less than 20%. At 2115.2 meters above sea level, the highest point in Hunan province is Lingfeng (酃峰).

The Xiang, the Zi, the Yuan and the Lishui Rivers converge on the Yangtze River at Lake Dongting in the north of Hunan. The center and northern parts are somewhat low and a U-shaped basin, open in the north and with Lake Dongting as its center. Most of Hunan lies in the basins of four major tributaries of the Yangtze River.

Lake Dongting is the largest lake in the province and the second largest freshwater lake of China.

The Xiaoxiang area and Lake Dongting figure prominently in Chinese poetry and paintings, particularly during the Song dynasty when they were associated with officials who had been unjustly dismissed.

Wulingyuan, located in south-central Hunan, is a World Heritage Site

Changsha (which means «long sands») was an active ceramics district during the Tang dynasty, its tea bowls, ewers and other products mass-produced and shipped to China’s coastal cities for export abroad. An Arab dhow dated to the 830s and today known as the Belitung Shipwreck was discovered off the small island of Belitung, Indonesia with more than 60,000 pieces in its cargo. The salvaged cargo is today housed in nearby Singapore.

Hunan’s climate is subtropical, and, under the Köppen climate classification, is classified as being humid subtropical (Köppen Cfa), with short, cool, damp winters, very hot and humid summers, and plenty of rainfall. January temperatures average 3 to 8 °C (37 to 46 °F) while July temperatures average around 27 to 30 °C (81 to 86 °F). Average annual precipitation is 1,200 to 1,700 millimetres (47 to 67 in).
The Furongian Epoch in the Cambrian Period of geological time is named for Hunan; Furong (芙蓉) means «lotus» in Mandarin and refers to Hunan which is known as the «lotus state».

Administrative divisions

Hunan is divided into fourteen : thirteen prefecture-level cities and an autonomous prefecture:

Administrative divisions of Hunan
Prefecture-level city district areas County-level cities
Division codeDivisionArea in km2Population 2010SeatDivisions
DistrictsCountiesAut. countiesCL cities
430000Hunan Province210000.0065,683,722Changsha city3661718
1430100Changsha city11,819.467,044,118Yuelu District612
13430200Zhuzhou city11,262.203,855,609Tianyuan District531
8430300Xiangtan city5,006.462,748,552Yuetang District212
4430400Hengyang city15,302.787,141,462Zhengxiang District552
7430500Shaoyang city20,829.637,071,826Daxiang District3612
11430600Yueyang city14,897.885,477,911Yueyanglou District342
2430700Changde city18,177.185,747,218Wuling District261
12430800Zhangjiajie city9,516.031,476,521Yongding District22
9430900Yiyang city12,325.164,313,084Heshan District231
3431000Chenzhou city19,317.334,581,778Beihu District281
10431100Yongzhou city22,255.315,180,235Lengshuitan District281
5431200Huaihua city27,562.724,741,948Hecheng District1551
6431300Loudi city8,107.613,785,627Louxing District122
14433100Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture15,462.302,547,833Jishou city71
Administrative divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations
EnglishChinesePinyinXiang Romanization
Hunan Province湖南省Húnán Shěngfu12 nan12 sǝn2
Changsha city长沙市Chángshā Shìc̣an2 sa11 ṣî32
Zhuzhou city株洲市Zhūzhōu Shìćy11 c̣ôu11 ṣî32
Xiangtan city湘潭市Xiāngtán Shì? ? ṣî32
Hengyang city衡阳市Héngyáng Shìxǝn12 ian12 ṣî32
Shaoyang city邵阳市Shàoyáng Shì? ian12 ṣî32
Yueyang city岳阳市Yuèyáng Shìio4 ian12 ṣî32
Changde city常德市Chángdé Shì? tô4 ṣî32
Zhangjiajie city张家界市Zhāngjiājiè Shì? ćia11 kai31 ṣî32
Yiyang city益阳市Yìyáng Shìi4 ian12 ṣî32
Chenzhou city郴州市Chēnzhōu Shì? c̣ôu11 ṣî32
Yongzhou city永州市Yǒngzhōu Shìyn2 c̣ôu11 ṣî32
Huaihua city怀化市Huáihuà Shìfai12 fa31 ṣî32
Loudi city娄底市Lóudǐ Shì? ti2 ṣî32
Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture湘西自治州Xiāngxī Zìzhìzhōu? si11 ci31 c̣î31 c̣ôu11

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
#CityUrban areaDistrict areaCity properCensus date
1Changsha2,963,2183,092,2137,040,9522010-11-01
2Hengyang1,115,6451,133,9677,148,3442010-11-01
3Zhuzhou999,4041,055,1503,857,1002010-11-01
4Yueyang924,0991,231,5095,476,0842010-11-01
5Xiangtan903,287960,3032,752,1712010-11-01
6Changde846,3081,457,4195,714,6232010-11-01
7Yiyang697,6071,245,5174,307,9332010-11-01
8Liuyang588,0811,279,469see Changsha2010-11-01
9Chenzhou582,971822,5344,583,5312010-11-01
10Shaoyang574,527753,1947,071,7352010-11-01
11Yongzhou540,9301,020,7155,194,2752010-11-01
(12)Ningxiang498,055116,6138see Changsha2010-11-01
13Leiyang476,1731,151,554see Hengyang2010-11-01
14Huaihua472,687552,6224,741,6732010-11-01
15Liling449,067947,387see Zhuzhou2010-11-01
16Loudi425,037496,7443,784,6342010-11-01
17Changning332,927810,447see Hengyang2010-11-01
18Miluo321,074692,080see Yueyang2010-11-01
19Yuanjiang281,097666,270see Yiyang2010-11-01
20Zhangjiajie250,489494,5281,478,1492010-11-01
21Lianyuan245,360995,515see Loudi2010-11-01
22Lengshuijiang238,275327,146see Loudi2010-11-01
23Linxiang225,054498,319see Yueyang2010-11-01
24Zixing215,707337,294see Chenzhou2010-11-01
25Jishou212,328302,065part of Xiangxi Prefecture2010-11-01
26Xiangxiang210,799788,216see Xiangtan2010-11-01
27Hongjiang197,753477,996see Huaihua2010-11-01
28Wugang187,436734,870see Shaoyang2010-11-01
29Jinshi156,230250,898see Changde2010-11-01
30Shaoshan27,61386,036see Xiangtan2010-11-01
  1. ^ New district established after census: Wangcheng (Wangcheng County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. ^ New district established after census: Lukou (Zhuzhou County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. Ningxiang County is currently known as Ningxiang CLC after census.

Главные достопримечательности провинции Хунань

  1. «Хаохань Цяо» – стеклянный мост

Этот мост соорудили на месте старинного моста из дерева. Его протяженность над пропастью составляет 180 метров. Касаемо стеклянного балкона, который опоясывает гору Tianmen, то он находится на расстоянии 1,5 км над землей. Оба сооружения вызывают у туристов ужас из-за которого на здешние красоты никто не обращает внимания. Чтобы хождение по стеклу было безопасным и не царапало его туристам выдают специальную обувь с не скользящей подошвой.

Пройти такое испытание может далеко не каждый человек. Благодаря прозрачности материала, создается впечатление как будто человек парит по воздуху. Многим посетителям такое развлечение кажется жутким и ненадежным. Но на самом деле сооружение достаточно прочное, рассчитанное на целую толпу людей.

  1. Пещера «Тяньмэнь»

Тяньмэнь является самой высокой пещерой во всем мире. Точнее сказать, это не совсем пещера, а арка покрытая скальными породами. Ее высота достигает более 130 метров, а глубина около – 60. Эта арка образовалась в из-за выветривания пород.

  1. Лифт «Байлонг»

Этот лифт является настоящим шедевром, его смонтировали на отвесе скалы. Чтобы ощутить высоту подъема лифта, а это – 360 метров, его кабинки сделаны из стекла. В постоянном режиме задействованы 3 кабинки, каждая из которых вмещает по 50 человек. На этих подъемниках туристы поднимаются на смотровую площадку. Так же на нее ведет лестница, время подъема по которой занимает 3 часа. На самой вершине горы находится храм буддистов «Небесные врата»

  1. Озеро «Дунтинху»

Озеро является одним из значимых мест паломничества, оно занимает второе место во величине среди источников пресной воды Китая. Его размеры меняются в зависимости от времени года. При обычной площади в 2 828 кв. километров, в период разлива рек оно увеличивается практически в 10 раз. В древние времена на этом озере отмечали праздник «Драконьих лодок».

  1. Каньон «Золотой Кнут»

Каньон расположен на территории парка национального значения «Чжанцзяцзе». Его длина около 6 км. При походе к нему туристы могут полюбоваться великолепными пейзажами, а так же покормить здешних обезьян. Специальный корм продается в сувенирных лавках, которых достаточно много.

  1. Гора «Хэншань»

Эта гора одна из 5 известнейших китайских гор. Из-за того, что здесь благоприятный климат, она занимает лидирующие позиции среди остальных. Ее протяженность более 150 км.

На ней растут густейшие леса и цветы, а ее низменности и овраги словно залиты туманной дымкой. Находясь в этом месте создается впечатление, что человек попал в сказку. Причем она очень красива в любое время года. В весенний период это красивейшие цветения растений, в летний – океан облаков, в осенний – удивительно красивые восходы, в зимний – настоящая страна чудес.

  1. Пещера «Шуйлянь»

Еще одной природной достопримечательностью является эта пещера, она расположена вблизи утеса из красного песчаника. В летний период с его вершины низвергается водопад, из-за чего местные жители дали пещере название «водный занавес».

Tourism

Located in the south central part of the Chinese mainland, Hunan has long been known for its natural environment. It is surrounded by mountains on the east, west, and south, and by the Yangtze River on the north. For thousands of years, the region has been a major center of agriculture, growing rice, tea, and oranges. China’s first all glass suspension bridge was also opened in Hunan, in Shiniuzhai National Geological Park.

  • Wulingyuan is a World Heritage Site and a 5A Scenic Area. Located in south-central Hunan, Wulingyuan is noted for its thousands of quartzite sandstone pillars, caves, and waterfalls. The area also contains Zhangjiajie National Forest Park.
  • Shaoshan County, known for being the birthplace of Mao Zedong
  • Yueyang Tower, on the shores of Lake Dongting, was built in the Han and Jin dynasties, and has existed in its current state since the Qing Dynasty. Alongside the Pavilion of Prince Teng and Yellow Crane Tower, it is one of the Three Great Towers of Jiangnan.
  • Mount Heng, in Hengyang, is one of the Five Great Mountains of China, and is home to the largest temple in southern China.
  • Fenghuang County, in Xiangxi Prefecture, has been placed on the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List for its ancient town. Fenghuang is known for its incorporation of mountain features and water flow into city design, and the ancient syncretism between the local Han and Miao cultures.
  • View of Wulingyuan
  • Fenghuang waterside
  • Peaks of Zhangjiajie
  • Tianxin Pavilion
  • Pillars of Wulingyuan
  • Furong Ancient City

Demographics

Ethnic minorities areas in Hunan

Historical population
YearPop.±%
191227,617,000
192831,501,000+14.1%
1936-3728,294,000−10.2%
194725,558,000−9.7%
195433,226,954+30.0%
196437,182,286+11.9%
198254,008,851+45.3%
199060,659,754+12.3%
200063,274,173+4.3%
201065,683,722+3.8%

As of the 2000 census, the population of Hunan is 64,400,700 consisting of forty-one ethnic groups. Its population grew 6.17% (3,742,700) from its 1990 levels. According to the census, 89.79% (57,540,000) identified themselves as Han people, 10.21% (6,575,300) as minority groups. The minority groups are Tujia, Miao, Dong, Yao, Bai, Hui, Zhuang, Uyghurs and so on.

In Hunan, ethnic minority languages are spoken in the following prefectures.

  • Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture: Qo Xiong language, Tujia language
  • Huaihua: Qo Xiong language, Dong language, Hm Nai language, Hmu language
  • Shaoyang: Maojia language, Hm Nai language, Pa-Hng language
  • Yongzhou: Mien language, Biao Min language
  • Chenzhou: Dzao Min language

Religion in Hunan

Chinese Buddhism,Taoist traditions and Chinese folk religions (20.19%)

Christianity (0.77%)

Other religions or not religious people (79.04%)

Hunanese Uyghurs

Around 5,000 Uyghurs live around Taoyuan County and other parts of Changde.Hui and Uyghurs have intermarried in this area. In addition to eating pork, the Uygurs of Changde practice other Han Chinese customs, like ancestor worship at graves. Some Uyghurs from Xinjiang visit the Hunan Uyghurs out of curiosity or interest. Also, the Uyghurs of Hunan do not speak the Uyghur language, instead, they speak Chinese as their native language.

Religion

The predominant religions in Hunan are Chinese Buddhism, Taoist traditions and Chinese folk religions. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 20.19% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, while 0.77% of the population identifies as Christian. The reports didn’t give figures for other types of religion; 79.04% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects.

Culture

Hunan’s culture industry generated 87 billion yuan (US$11.76 billion) in economic value in 2007, and is major contributor to the province’s economic growth. The industry accounts for 7.5 percent of the region’s GDP.[citation needed]

Language

Xiang Chinese (湘語) is the eponymous variety of Chinese spoken in Hunan. In addition to Xiang Chinese, there are also other dialects and languages present, such as Southwestern Mandarin, Hakka, Waxiang, and Xiangnan Tuhua. Nü shu, a writing system for Xiangnan Tuhua, is used exclusively among women in Jiangyong County and neighboring areas in southern Hunan.

A bowl of rice noodles made in Changsha.

Cuisine

Hunanese cuisine is noted for its near-ubiquitous use of chili peppers, garlic, and shallots. These ingredients give rise to a distinctive dry-and-spicy (Chinese: 干辣; gān là) taste, with dishes such as smoked bacon, and stir-fried spicy beef being prime examples of the flavor.

История

Территорию современной Хунань в древности заселяли племена мань и и. В V—IV вв. до н. э. входила в состав княжества Чу. Стала усиленно заселяться китайцами с IV в. н. э. В VII—VIII вв. входила в состав округов Сидао и Дундао, в IX—XII вв. — в область Синху, в XIII—XVII вв. — в провинцию .

Провинция Хунань в её современных границах была создана в 1668 г. из южной части провинции Хугуан. В конце XVIII в. на территории Хунань действовали отряды восставших крестьян, руководимых сектой «Белого лотоса», а в 1852—54 — армия восставших крестьян-тайпинов. В период революции 1925—27 Хунань — арена активного крестьянского движения. В 1927—34 там существовало несколько революционных опорных баз (советских районов). В период национально-освободительной войны китайского народа против японских захватчиков (1937—45) значительная часть территории Хунань была оккупирована японскими войсками. Из-под власти гоминьдановцев Хунань освобождена Народно-освободительной армией Китая в августе года.

Economy

As of the mid 19th century, Hunan exported rhubarb, musk, honey, tobacco, hemp, and birds. The Lake Dongting area is an important center of ramie production, and Hunan is also an important center of tea cultivation. Aside from agricultural products, in recent years Hunan has grown to become an important center for steel, machinery and electronics production, especially as China’s manufacturing sector moves away from coastal provinces such as Guangdong and Zhejiang.

The Lengshuijiang area is noted for its stibnite mines, and is one of the major centers of antimony extraction in China.[citation needed]

Hunan is also well known for a few international makers of construction equipments such as concrete pumps, cranes, etc. These companies include Sany Group, Zoomlion and Sunward. Sany is one of the major players in the world.
Liuyang is the major maker of fireworks in the world.

As of 2016, its nominal GDP was USD 475 billion (CNY 3.16 trillion), the per capita GDP was USD 6,983 (CNY 46,382).

Historical GDP of Hunan Province for 1952 –present (SNA2008)(purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Int’l. dollar based on IMF WEO October 2017)
yearGDPGDP per capita (GDPpc) based on mid-year population Reference index
GDP in millionsrealgrowth(%)GDPpcexchange rate1 foreign currency to CNY
CNYUSDPPP(Int’l$.)CNYUSDPPP(Int’l$.)USD 1Int’l$. 1(PPP)
20163,155,137475,007901,2368.046,3826,98313,2496.64233.5009
20152,917,217468,373821,8678.543,1576,92912,1596.22843.5495
20142,728,177444,126768,4149.540,6356,61511,4456.14283.5504
20132,483,465400,999694,30710.137,2636,01710,4186.19323.5769
20122,233,833353,875629,10711.433,7585,3489,5076.31253.5508
20111,981,655306,815565,29912.830,1034,6618,5876.45883.5055
20101,615,325238,618487,92514.624,8973,6787,5206.76953.3106
20091,315,627192,597416,66713.920,5793,0136,5176.83103.1575
20081,162,761167,422366,01614.118,2612,6295,7486.94513.1768
2007948,599124,750314,63715.114,9421,9654,9567.60403.0149
2006772,23296,870268,35012.812,1921,5294,2377.97182.8777
2005662,34580,856231,67012.210,6061,2953,7108.19172.8590
2000355,14942,901130,6039.05,4256551,9958.27842.7193
1995213,21325,53178,11710.33,3594021,2318.35102.7294
199074,44415,56443,7244.01,2282577214.78321.7026
198534,99511,91724,96612.16262134472.93661.4017
198019,17212,79512,8205.23652442441.49841.4955
197511,8406,36610.32391291.8598
19709,3053,78017.6211862.4618
19656,5322,65313.2170692.4618
19606,4072,603-1.0176712.4618
19553,5831,37618.5104402.6040
19522,7811,25186392.2227

Economic and technological development zones

Changsha National Economic and Technical Development Zone

The Changsha National Economic and Technology Development Zone was founded in 1992. It is located east of Changsha. The total planned area is 38.6 km2 (14.9 sq mi) and the current area is 14 km2 (5.4 sq mi). Near the zone is National Highways G319 and G107 as well as Jingzhu Highway. Besides that, it is very close to the downtown and the railway station. The distance between the zone and the airport is 8 km (5.0 mi). The major industries in the zone include high-tech industry, biology project technology and new material industry.

  • Changsha National New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
  • Chenzhou Export Processing Zone

Approved by the State Council, Chenzhou Export processing Zone (CEPZ) was established in 2005 and is the only export processing zone in Hunan province. The scheduled production area of CEPZ covers 3km2. The industrial positioning of CEPZ is to concentrate on developing export-oriented hi-tech industries, including electronic information, precision machinery, and new-type materials. The zone has good infrastructure, and the enterprises inside could enjoy the preferential policies of tax-exemption, tax-guarantee and tax-refunding. By the end of the “Eleventh Five-Year Plan”, the CEPZ achieved a total export and import volume of over US$1 billion and provided more than 50,000 jobs. It aimed to be one of the first-class export processing zones in China.

Zhuzhou National New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Zhuzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was founded in 1992. Its total planned area is 35 km2 (14 sq mi). It is very close to National Highway G320. The major industries in the zone include biotechnology, food processing and heavy industry. In 2007, the park signed a cooperation contract with Beijing Automobile Industry, one of the largest auto makers in China, which will set up a manufacturing base in Zhuzhou HTP.

Notes

  1. The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage »churches» and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang.
  2. This may include:
    • Buddhists;
    • Confucians;
    • Deity worshippers;
    • Taoists;
    • Members of folk religious sects;
    • Small minorities of Muslims;
    • And people not bounded to, nor practicing any, institutional or diffuse religion.

History

Zeng Guofan

Hunan’s primeval forests were first occupied by the ancestors of the modern Miao, Tujia, Dong and Yao peoples. The province entered written Chinese history around 350 BC, when under the kings of the Zhou dynasty, the province became part of the State of Chu. After Qin conquered the Chu heartland in 278 BC, the region came under the control of Qin, and then the Changsha Kingdom during the Han dynasty. At this time, and for hundreds of years thereafter, the province was a magnet for settlement of Han Chinese from the north, who displaced and assimilated the original indigenous inhabitants, cleared forests and began farming rice in the valleys and plains. The agricultural colonization of the lowlands was carried out in part by the Han state, which managed river dikes to protect farmland from floods. To this day many of the small villages in Hunan are named after the Han families who settled there. Migration from the north was especially prevalent during the Eastern Jin dynasty and the Northern and Southern dynasties periods, when nomadic invaders pushed these peoples south.

During the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Hunan was home to its own independent regime, Ma Chu.

Hunan and Hubei became a part of the province of Huguang until the Qing dynasty. Hunan province was created in 1664 from Huguang, renamed to its current name in 1723.

Hunan became an important communications center due to its position on the Yangzi River. It was an important centre of scholarly activity and Confucian thought, particularly in the Yuelu Academy in Changsha. It was also on the Imperial Highway constructed between northern and southern China. The land produced grain so abundantly that it fed many parts of China with its surpluses. The population continued to climb until, by the nineteenth century, Hunan became overcrowded and prone to peasant uprisings. Some of the uprisings, such as the ten-year Miao Rebellion of 1795–1806, were caused by ethnic tensions. The Taiping Rebellion began in the south in Guangxi Province in 1850. The rebellion spread into Hunan and then further eastward along the Yangzi River valley. Ultimately, it was a Hunanese army under Zeng Guofan who marched into Nanjing to put down the uprising in 1864.

Battle of Changsha

Hunan was relatively quiet until 1910 when there were uprisings against the crumbling Qing dynasty, which were followed by the Communist’s Autumn Harvest Uprising of 1927. It was led by Hunanese native Mao Zedong, and established a short-lived Hunan Soviet in 1927. The Communists maintained a guerrilla army in the mountains along the Hunan-Jiangxi border until 1934. Under pressure from the Nationalist Kuomintang (KMT) forces, they began the Long March to bases in Shaanxi Province. After the departure of the Communists, the KMT army fought against the Japanese in the second Sino-Japanese war. They defended Changsha until it fell in 1944. Japan launched Operation Ichigo, a plan to control the railroad from Wuchang to Guangzhou (Yuehan Railway). Hunan was relatively unscathed by the civil war that followed the defeat of the Japanese in 1945. In 1949, the Communists returned once more as the Nationalists retreated southward.

As Mao Zedong’s home province, Hunan supported the Cultural Revolution of 1966–1976[citation needed]. However, it was slower than most provinces in adopting the reforms implemented by Deng Xiaoping in the years that followed Mao’s death in 1976.

In addition to Mao Zedong, a number of other first-generation communist leaders were also from Hunan: President Liu Shaoqi; General Secretaries Ren Bishi and Hu Yaobang; Marshals Peng Dehuai, He Long, and Luo Ronghuan; Wang Zhen, one of the Eight Elders; Xiang Jingyu, the first female member of the party’s central committee; Senior General Huang Kecheng; and veteran diplomat Lin Boqu. An example of a more recent leader from Hunan is former Premier Zhu Rongji.

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