Провинция чжэцзян

Geography

View of the West Lake in Hangzhou.

Zhejiang consists mostly of hills, which account for about 70% of its total area. Altitudes tend to be the highest to the south and west, and the highest peak of the province, Huangyajian Peak (1,921 metres (6,302 ft)), is located in the southwest. Mountains and mountain ranges include the Yandang Mountains, Tianmu Mountains, Mount Tiantai, and Mount Mogan, which traverse the province at altitudes of about 200 to 1,000 metres (660 to 3,300 ft).

Valleys and plains are found along the coastline and rivers. The north of the province lies just south of the Yangtze Delta, and consists of plains around the cities of Hangzhou, Jiaxing, and Huzhou, where the Grand Canal of China enters from the northern border to end at Hangzhou. Another relatively flat area is found along the Qujiang River around the cities of Quzhou and Jinhua. Major rivers include the Qiangtang and Oujiang Rivers. Most rivers carve out valleys in the highlands, with plenty of rapids and other features associated with such topography. Well-known lakes include the West Lake of Hangzhou and the South Lake of Jiaxing.

There are over three thousand islands along the ragged coastline of Zhejiang. The largest, Zhoushan Island, is Mainland China’s third largest island, after Hainan and Chongming. There are also many bays with Hangzhou Bay being the largest.

Zhejiang has a humid subtropical climate with four distinct seasons. Spring starts in March and is rainy with changeable weather. Summer, from June to September is long, hot and humid. Fall is generally dry, warm and sunny. Winters are short but cold except in the far south. Average annual temperature is around 15 to 19°C, average January temperature is around 2 to 8°C, and average July temperature is around 27 to 30°C. Annual precipitation is about 1000 to 1900 mm. There is plenty of rainfall in early summer, and by late summer Zhejiang is directly threatened by typhoons forming in the Pacific.

Politics

Main article: Politics of Zhejiang

The politics of Zhejiang is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Zhejiang is the highest ranking official in the People’s Government of Zhejiang. However, in the province’s dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Zhejiang Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the «Zhejiang CPC Party Chief». Zhejiang was home to Chiang Kai-shek and many high ranking officials in the Nationalist Party, who fled to Taiwan in 1949 after losing the Civil War. Zhejiang has since become the forefront of China’s tense relations with Taiwan.

College and schools

Zhejiang Normal University campus

Zhejiang Normal University has 18 colleges and schools that offers 61 study programs.

  • Chuyang Honors College
  • College of Economics and Management
  • College of Law and Political Science
  • Hangzhou College of Preschool Teacher Education
  • College of Physical Education and Health Sciences
  • College of Humanities
  • College of Foreign Languages
  • College of Geography and Environmental Sciences
  • College of Engineering
  • College of Music
  • College of International Culture and Education
  • College of Chemistry and Life Sciences
  • College of Teacher Education
  • College of Fine Arts
  • College of Communication and Creative Culture
  • Xingzhi College
  • College of Vocational and Technical Education
  • Office of Postgraduate Teaching and Student Affairs

The university has a college in Hangzhou: Hangzhou Junior Teachers College.

Административное деление

В административно-территориальном плане провинция Чжэцзян делится на два и девять городских округов:

КартаРусское названиеКитайское названиеТип
1杭州市Hángzhōu Shìгород субпровинциального значения
2宁波市Níngbō Shìгород субпровинциального значения
3湖州市Húzhōu Shì Shìгородской округ
4嘉兴市Jiāxīng Shì Shìгородской округ
5金华市Jīnhuá Shìгородской округ
6丽水市Líshuǐ Shìгородской округ
7衢州市Qúzhōu Shìгородской округ
8绍兴市Shàoxīng Shìгородской округ
9台州市Tāizhōu Shìгородской округ
10温州市Wēnzhōu Shìгородской округ
11舟山市Zhōushān Shìгородской округ

Эти 11 единиц окружного уровня в свою очередь делятся на 90 единиц уездного уровня (32 городских района, 22 города уездного значения, 35 уездов и один автономный уезд). Те в свою очередь подразделяются на 1570 единиц волостного уровня (761 посёлок, 505 волостей, 14 национальных волостей, 290 уличных комитетов).

Tourism

The Hall of Five Hundred Arhats at Guoqing Temple

Tourist destinations in Zhejiang include:

  • Baoguo Temple, one of the oldest intact wooden structures in Southern China, 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) north of Ningbo.
  • Mount Putuo, one of the most noted Buddhist mountains in China. Chinese Buddhists associate it with Guan Yin.
  • Qita Temple, Ningbo.
  • Shaoxing, site of the Tomb of Yu the Great, Wuzhen and other waterway towns.
  • The ancient capital of Hangzhou.
  • Mount Tiantai, (天台山), a mountain important to Zen Buddhism.
  • West Lake, in Hangzhou
  • Yandang Shan, a mountainous scenic area north of Wenzhou.
  • Qiandao Lake, lit. Thousand-island lake.
  • Guoqing Temple, founded in the Sui Dynasty, the founding location of Tiantai Buddhism
  • Mount Mogan, a scenic mountain an hour from Hangzhou with many pre-WWII villas built by foreigners, along with one of Chiang Kai-shek’s Kuomintang compounds

External links

  • Zhejiang travel guide from Wikitravel
AnhuiJiangsuShanghai
East China Sea
   Zhejiang
JiangxiFujian

Wikimedia Foundation.
2010.

  • Cornerstone Festival
  • Memphis, Egypt

Look at other dictionaries:

  • ZHEJIANG — Province du littoral de la Chine orientale, au sud du delta du Yangzijiang, le Zhejiang couvre 101 800 km2 et comptait, selon les estimations de 1992, 42 millions d’habitants. Cette province rassemble des éléments des deux grands… …   Encyclopédie Universelle
  • Zhejiang — (chino: 浙江, pinyin: Zhèjiāng, forma tradicional: Chekiang), provincia de la República Popular China. Su capital es Hangzhou; otras ciudades y puertos importantes son Ningbo y Wenzhou. Durante las dinastías Qin y Han, Zhejiang estuvo bajo el… …   Enciclopedia Universal
  • Zhejiang —   , Chekiang, Tschekiang, Provinz in China, am Ostchinesischen Meer, 102 000 km2, 44,56 Mio. Einwohner; Hauptstadt ist Hangzhou. Der Norden der Provinz gehört noch zur flachen Jangtsekiangniederung, der südliche Teil zum südostchinesischen… …   Universal-Lexikon
  • Zhejiang — province of E China, on the East China Sea: 39,305 sq mi (101,800 sq km); pop. 40,840,000; cap. Hangzhou …   English World dictionary
  • Zhèjiāng — 浙江省 Zhèjiāng Shěng Abkürzung: 浙 (Pinyin: Zhè) Hauptstadt Hangzhou Fläche   Gesamt   Anteil an der VR China Rang 25 von 33 101 800 km² 1,06 %   …   Deutsch Wikipedia
  • Zhejiang — 浙江省 Zhèjiāng Shěng Abkürzung: 浙 (Pinyin: Zhè) Hauptstadt Hangzhou Fläche   Gesamt   Anteil an der VR China Rang 25 von 33 101 800 …   Deutsch Wikipedia
  • Zhejiang — 29°0′N 120°0′E / 29, 120 Zhejiang …   Wikipédia en Français
  • Zhejiang — Este artículo o sección necesita referencias que aparezcan en una publicación acreditada, como revistas especializadas, monografías, prensa diaria o páginas de Internet fidedignas. Puedes añadirlas así o avisar …   Wikipedia Español
  • Zhejiang — or Chekiang geographical name province E China bordering on East China Sea capital Hangzhou area 39,305 square miles (102,193 square kilometers), population 41,445,930 …   New Collegiate Dictionary
  • Zhejiang — /jue jyahng /, n. Pinyin. a province in E China, on the East China Sea. 28,320,000; 39,768 sq. mi. (102,999 sq. km). Cap.: Hangzhou. Also, Chekiang. * * * or Che chiang conventional Chekiang Province (pop., 2000 est.: 46,770,000), eastern China.… …   Universalium

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History

The university was originally established as the Hangzhou Normal Academy in 1956. It became the Hangzhou Normal College in 1958. In 1962, Hangzhou Normal College and the Zhejiang Teaching College merged to become the Zhejiang Normal College. In 1965, the college relocated to Jinhua.

In 1980, the college was classified as a tertiary education. In 1985, the college became the Zheijiang Normal University. Since then, it has expanded its colleges, departments and undergraduate programmes.

In 2000, 2001, and 2004, three more higher education merged into ZJNU: Zhejiang Financial School, Zhejiang School of Preschool-Teacher Education and the Jinhua Railway Engineering School respectively.

Administrative divisions

Zhejiang is divided into eleven prefecture-level divisions, all of them prefecture-level cities:

Map#NameHanziHanyu PinyinAdministrative Seat
— Sub-provincial city —
1Hangzhou杭州市Hángzhōu ShìGongshu District
2Ningbo宁波市Níngbō ShìHaishu District
— Prefecture-level city —
3Huzhou湖州市Húzhōu ShìWuxing District
4Jiaxing嘉兴市Jiāxīng ShìNanhu District
5Jinhua金华市Jīnhuá ShìWucheng District
6Lishui丽水市Líshuǐ ShìLiandu District
7Quzhou衢州市Qúzhōu ShìKecheng District
8Shaoxing绍兴市Shàoxīng ShìYuecheng District
9Taizhou台州市Tāizhōu ShìJiaojiang District
10Wenzhou温州市Wēnzhōu ShìLucheng District
11Zhoushan舟山市Zhōushān ShìDinghai District

The eleven prefecture-level divisions of Zhejiang are subdivided into 90 county-level divisions (32 districts, 22 county-level cities, 35 counties, and one autonomous county). Those are in turn divided into 1570 township-level divisions (761 towns, 505 townships, 14 ethnic townships, and 290 subdistricts).

See List of administrative divisions of Zhejiang for a complete list of county-level divisions.

Culture of Zhejiang

Han Chinese make up the vast majority of the population. The She and Hui nationalities are the two largest minorities.

Languages

Zhejiang is mountainous and has therefore fostered the development of many individual localized cultures. Linguistically speaking, Zhejiang is extremely diverse. The inhabitants of Zhejiang speak Wu, a subdivision of spoken Chinese, but the Wu dialects are very diverse, especially in the south, where one valley may speak a dialect completely unintelligible to another valley a few kilometres away. Non-Wu dialects are spoken as well, mostly along the borders; Mandarin and Huizhou dialects are spoken on the border with Anhui, while Min dialects are spoken on the border with Fujian. (See Hangzhou dialect, Shaoxing dialect, Ningbo dialect, Wenzhou dialect, Taizhou (Zhejiang) dialect, Jinhua dialect, Quzhou dialect for more information). Throughout history there has been numerous lingua franca in the area to allow for better communication. The dialects spoken in Hangzhou, Shaoxing and Ningbo have taken on this role historically. Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, Standard Mandarin, which is not mutually intelligible with any local dialects, has been promoted as the standard language of communication in all of China. As a result, most of the population now have a good grasp on speaking and comprehending Mandarin and can code-switch when necessary, while the majority of the population educated since 1978 can speak Mandarin flawlessly. Urban areas tend to be more fluent in Mandarin than rural areas. Nevertheless, a Zhejiang accent is detectable in almost everyone from the area communicating in Mandarin, and the home dialect of any native resident remains an important part of the everyday lives and cultural identity of most Zhejiang residents.

Music

Zhejiang is the home of Yueju (越劇), one of the most prominent forms of Chinese opera. Yueju originated in Shengzhou and is traditionally performed by actresses only, in both male and female roles. Other important opera traditions include Yongju (of Ningbo), Shaoju (of Shaoxing), Ouju (of Wenzhou), Wuju (of Jinhua), Taizhou Luantan (of Taizhou) and Zhuji Luantan (of Zhuji).

Cuisine

Longjing tea (also called dragon well tea), originating in Hangzhou, is one of the most prestigious, if not the most prestigious Chinese tea. Hangzhou is also renowned for its silk umbrellas and folding fans. Zhejiang cuisine (itself subdivided into many traditions, including Hangzhou cuisine) is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine.

Colleges and universities

See also: List of universities and colleges in Zhejiang

  • China Academy of Art (中国美术学院) (Hangzhou)
  • Hangzhou Dianzi University (杭州电子科技大学) (Hangzhou)
  • Hangzhou Normal University (杭州师范大学)(Hangzhou)
  • Ningbo University (宁波大学) (Ningbo)
  • University of Nottingham, Ningbo, China (诺丁汉大学宁波校区) (Ningbo)
  • Zhejiang Agricultural University
  • Zhejiang University (浙江大学) (Hangzhou)
  • Zhejiang University of Technology (浙江工业大学) (Hangzhou)
  • Zhejiang Medical University
  • Zhejiang Normal University (浙江师范大学) (Jinhua)
  • Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics (浙江财经学院) (Hangzhou)
  • Zhejiang Gongshang University (浙江工商大学) (Hangzhou)
  • Shaoxing University (绍兴文理学院) (Shaoxing)
  • Zhejiang Forestry University (浙江林学院) (Lin’an 临安)
  • Wenzhou Medical College (温州医学院)
  • Wenzhou Teachers College
  • Shaoxing College of Arts and Science
  • Zhejiang Institute of Education
  • Hangzhou Institute of Electronic Engineering
  • Hangzhou University of Commerce
  • Hangzhou Institute of Financial Managers

Geography

View of the West Lake in Hangzhou from the mountains to the north-west.

Zhejiang consists mostly of hills, which account for about 70% of its total area. Altitudes tend to be highest to the south and west, and the highest peak of the province, Huangyajian Peak (1921 m), is found in the southwest. Mountain ranges include the Yandang Mountains, Tianmu Mountains, Tiantai Mountains, and Mogan Mountains, which traverse the province at altitudes of about 200 to 1000 m.

Valleys and plains are found along the coastline and rivers. The north of the province is just south of the Yangtze Delta, and consists of plains around the cities of Hangzhou, Jiaxing, and Huzhou, where the Grand Canal of China enters from the northern border to end at Hangzhou; another relatively flat area is found along the Qujiang River, around the cities of Quzhou and Jinhua. Major rivers include the Qiantang River and the Oujiang River. Most rivers carve out valleys in the highlands, with plenty of rapids and other features associated with such topography. Famous lakes include the West Lake of Hangzhou and the South Lake of Jiaxing.

There are over three thousand islands along the ragged coastline of Zhejiang. The largest, Zhoushan Island, is Mainland China’s third largest island, after Hainan and Chongming. There are also many bays, Hangzhou Bay being the largest.

Zhejiang has a humid subtropical climate with four distinct seasons. Spring starts in March and is rainy and weather is changeable. Summer, from June to September is long, hot and humid. Fall is generally dry, warm and sunny. Winters are short but cold except in the far south. Average annual temperature is around 15 to 19°C, average January temperature is around 2 to 8°C, and average July temperature is around 27 to 30°C. Annual precipitation is about 1000 to 1900 mm. There is plenty of rainfall in early summer, and by late summer Zhejiang is directly threatened by typhoons forming in the Pacific.

The skyline of Hangzhou, seen from across West Lake.

Major cities:

  • Hangzhou
  • Haining
  • Ningbo
  • Jiaxing
  • Huzhou
  • Wenzhou
  • Shaoxing
  • Zhoushan
  • Yiwu
  • Taizhou

Administrative divisions

Zhejiang is divided into eleven prefecture-level divisions, all of them prefecture-level cities:

Map#NameHanziHanyu PinyinAdministrative SeatType
1Hangzhou杭州市Hángzhōu ShìGongshu DistrictSub-provincial city
2Ningbo宁波市Níngbō ShìHaishu DistrictSub-provincial city
3Huzhou湖州市Húzhōu Shì ShìWuxing DistrictPrefecture-level city
4Jiaxing嘉兴市Jiāxīng Shì ShìNanhu DistrictPrefecture-level city
5Jinhua金华市Jīnhuá ShìWucheng DistrictPrefecture-level city
6Lishui丽水市Líshuǐ ShìLiandu DistrictPrefecture-level city
7Quzhou衢州市Qúzhōu ShìKecheng DistrictPrefecture-level city
8Shaoxing绍兴市Shàoxīng ShìYuecheng DistrictPrefecture-level city
9Taizhou台州市Tāizhōu ShìJiaojiang DistrictPrefecture-level city
10Wenzhou温州市Wēnzhōu ShìLucheng DistrictPrefecture-level city
11Zhoushan舟山市Zhōushān ShìDinghai DistrictPrefecture-level city

The eleven prefecture-level divisions of Zhejiang are subdivided into 90 county-level divisions (32 districts, 22 county-level cities, 35 counties, and one autonomous county). Those are in turn divided into 1570 township-level divisions (761 towns, 505 townships, 14 ethnic townships, and 290 subdistricts).

See List of administrative divisions of Zhejiang for a complete list of county-level divisions.

Profile

As one of the key provincial universities, ZJNU specializes in teacher education with multiple branches of learning. The university consists of 18 colleges offering 61 undergraduate programs. It has an enrolment over 25,480 undergraduates, 4,300 postgraduates, and 15,000 adult students in adult education programs. Among the total staff of 2,640, there are 1,460 full-time instructors, including a Chinese Academy of Sciences Academician, 260 full professors and 650 associate professors. One professor was awarded the title of National Outstanding Scholar.

The university is named by the Ministry of Education as a Key National Training Base for Teachers of Vocational Education. In addition, it is designated by the Ministry of Railways as a base for the training of locomotive engineers. Moreover, Zhejiang Training Center for University and College Teachers is affiliated to the university for various in-service training programs.

International students new dormitory

At present, the university claims 24 provincial key disciplines, 6 provincial key construction disciplines, 3 provincial research bases and 63 master’s degree programs. ZJNU offers other professional master’s programs including M.Ed., MPA, MBA, MSW, MTCSOL, MA for Part-Time Vocational Education and MA of Science in Physical Education. The libraries at ZJNU have a collection of more than 3,000,000 traditional books and over 1,850,000 online books. 42 laboratories have been established, with a total floor space of 119,000 square meters, including one key laboratory of the Ministry of Education, one national key demonstration center of experiment instruction and 5 provincial key laboratories and key demonstration centers of experiment instruction.

The university makes strenuous efforts to open up to the outside world. In recent years, ties of academic exchange and cooperation have been set up between ZJNU and 92 foreign universities and research institutes in 42 countries. In 1996, ZJNU set up a Center for Chinese Language and Culture in Cameroon. In 1997, the university was authorized to accept short- and long-term international students.

Approved by the Ministry of Education, ZJNU established a Base for Education Assistance and Development in 2004 to undertake human resources development projects for senior education administrators from other continents. In addition, it has been authorized to run a center for overseas studies to assist self-funded students to study in foreign countries. In 2007, the university was authorized to accept international students supported by the Chinese Government Scholarship and established Confucius Institutes in Cameroon and Ukraine.

Following the motto of “wisdom with virtue, integrity with innovation”, ZJNU is striding forward to build itself into a high-level comprehensive teaching and research university with its own characteristics.

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Industry of Zhejiang

The province is traditionally known as the «Land of Fish and Rice». True to its name, rice is the main crop, followed by wheat; north Zhejiang is also a center of aquaculture in China, and the Zhoushan fishery is the largest fishery in the country. Main cash crops include jute and cotton, and the province also leads the provinces of China in tea production (the renowned Longjing tea is a product of Hangzhou). Zhejiang’s towns have been known for handcraft production of products such as silk, for which it is ranked second among the provinces.

Ningbo, Wenzhou, Taizhou and Zhoushan are important commercial ports. The Hangzhou Bay Bridge ,between Haiyan County and Cixi, is the longest sea-crossing bridge in the world.

Zhejiang’s manufacturing is centered upon electromechanical industries, textiles, chemical industries, food, and construction materials. In recent years Zhejiang has followed its own development model, dubbed the «Zhejiang model.» This is based on prioritizing and encouraging entrepreneurship, an emphasis on small businesses responsive to changes of the market, large public investments into infrastructure, and the production of low cost goods in bulk for both domestic consumption and export. As a result, Zhejiang has made itself one of the richest provinces and the «Zhejiang spirit» has become something of a legend within China. However, some economists are now worrying that this model is not sustainable, in that it is inefficient and places unreasonable demands on raw materials and public utilities.The economic heart of Zhejiang is moving from Hangzhou and surrounding North Zhejiang, southeastwards. The per capita disposable income of urbanites in Zhejiang reached 22,727 yuan (US$3,272) in 2008, an annual real growth of 5.4%. The per capita pure income of rural residents stood at 9,258 yuan (US$1,333), a real growth of 6.2% year-on-year. Its nominal GDP for 2008 was 2.15 trillion yuan (US$309 billion) with a per capita of 42,214 yuan (US$6,078). In 2008, Zhejiang’s primary, secondary, and tertiary industries were worth 109.5 billion yuan (US$15.8 billion), 1.158 tillion yuan (US$166.7 billion), and 881.1 billion yuan (US$126.9 billion) respectively.

Zhejiang was the first province of China, which had no counties in the poverty-county list of the central government. Zhejiang has become one of the most marketised and richest provinces in China. Compared to many other Chinese provinces, the development in different regions in Zhejiang is more balanced. While the countyside still lags far behind. In 2006, the per capita disposable incomes for eleven major cities in Zhejiang were ranked among the top 30 in China.

Politics

Main article: Politics of Zhejiang

The politics of Zhejiang is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Zhejiang is the highest ranking official in the People’s Government of Zhejiang. However, in the province’s dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Zhejiang Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the «Zhejiang CPC Party Chief». Zhejiang was home to Chiang Kai-shek and many high ranking officials in the Nationalist Party, who fled to Taiwan in 1949 after losing the Civil War. Zhejiang has since become the forefront of China’s tense relations with Taiwan.

Tourism

The Hall of Five Hundred Arhats at Guoqing Temple

Tourist destinations in Zhejiang include:

  • Baoguo Temple, the oldest intact wooden structure in Southern China, 15 km north of Ningbo.
  • Putuo Shan, one of the most famous Buddhist mountains of China. Chinese Buddhists associate it with Guan Yin.
  • Qita Temple, Ningbo.
  • Shaoxing, Wuzhen and other waterway towns.
  • The ancient capital of Hangzhou.
  • Tiantai Shan, a mountain important to Zen Buddhism.
  • West Lake, in Hangzhou
  • Yandang Shan, a mountainous scenic area north of Wenzhou.
  • Qiandao Lake, lit. Thousand-island lake.
  • Guoqing Temple: founded in the Sui Dynasty, the founding place of Tiantai Buddhism
  • Moganshan: a scenic mountain an hour from Hangzhou with many pre-WWII villas built by foreigners, along with one of Chiang Kai-shek’s Kuomintang compounds

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